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Difference between Machine Learning, Data Science, AI, Deep Learning, and Statistics

In this article, I clarify the various roles of the data scientist, and how data science compares and overlaps with related fields such as machine learning, deep learning, AI, statistics, IoT, operations research, and applied mathematics. 

Table of Content:

The article is organized as follows:

1. Different Types of Data Scientists

2. Machine Learning versus Deep Learning

  • What is the difference between machine learning and statistics?

3. Data Science versus Machine Learning

Excerpts from the article:

  • Some people have a different definition for deep learning. They consider deep learning as neural networks (a machine learning technique) with a deeper layer. The question was asked on Quora recently, and below is a more detailed explanation. [...]
  • Data scientists can be found anywhere in the lifecycle of data science projects, at the data gathering stage, or the data exploratory stage, all the way up to statistical modeling and maintaining existing systems. 
  • Around 1990, I worked on image remote sensing technology, to identify patterns (or shapes or features, for instance lakes) in satellite images and to perform image segmentation: at that time my research was labeled as computational statistics, but the people doing the exact same thing in the computer science department next door in my home university, called their research artificial intelligence. Today, it would be called [...]
  • The word learning in machine learning means that the algorithms depend on some data, used as a training set, to fine-tune some model or algorithm parameters. This encompasses many techniques such as regression, naive Bayes or supervised clustering. But not all techniques fit in this category. 

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