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# All Blog Posts (2,259)

### Bernouilli Lattice Models - Connection to Poisson Processes

Bernouilli lattice processes may be one of the simplest examples of point processes, and can be used as an introduction to learn about more complex spatial processes that rely on advanced measure theory for their definition. In this article, we show the differences and analogies between Bernouilli lattice processes on the standard rectangular or hexagonal grid, and the Poisson process, including convergence of discrete lattice processes to continuous Poisson process, mainly in two…

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Added by Vincent Granville on June 5, 2020 at 1:11pm — No Comments

### Explaining Data Science to a Non-Data Scientist

Summary:  Explaining data science to a non-data scientist isn’t as easy as it sounds.  You may know a lot about math, tools, techniques, data, and computer architecture but the question is how do you explain this briefly without getting buried in the detail.  You might try this approach.

We’ve all been…

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Added by Vincent Granville on June 4, 2020 at 5:05pm — No Comments

### New Probabilistic Approach to Factoring Big Numbers

Product of two large primes are at the core of many encryption algorithms, as factoring the product is very hard for numbers with a few hundred digits. The two prime factors are associated with the encryption keys (public and private keys). Here we describe a new approach to factoring a big number that is the product of two primes of roughly the same size. It is designed especially to handle this problem and identify flaws in encryption algorithms.  …

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Added by Vincent Granville on May 27, 2020 at 12:20pm — No Comments

### How “anonymous” is anonymous data?

This post discusses what actually makes data anonymous, share about the misconception we have of it and describe the problems it raises.…

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Added by Elise Devaux on May 23, 2020 at 1:23pm — No Comments

### Simple Trick to Dramatically Improve Speed of Convergence

We discuss a simple trick to significantly accelerate the convergence of an algorithm when the error term decreases in absolute value over successive iterations, with the error term oscillating (not necessarily periodically) between positive and negative values.

We first illustrate the technique on a well known and simple case: the computation of log 2 using its well know, slow-converging series. We then discuss a very interesting and more complex case, before finally focusing on a…

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Added by Vincent Granville on May 5, 2020 at 5:37pm — No Comments

### Use the Data Insights Iceberg to Manage Stakeholder Expectations

One of the main challenges in data science projects is managing stakeholder expectations. Often those in the business will have little idea of the complexity and timescales of seemingly simple tasks.

Sourcing Data

Consider sourcing data. In some organisations, with a non-collaborative culture, something as simple as getting a file of data from IT can take weeks. Add on time to check the data, spend time with someone to explain it, handle revisions and…

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Added by Andrew Watson on May 1, 2020 at 7:00am — No Comments

### State-of-the-Art Statistical Science to Tackle Famous Number Theory Conjectures

The methodology described here has broad applications, leading to new statistical tests, new type of ANOVA (analysis of variance), improved design of experiments, interesting fractional factorial designs, a better understanding of irrational numbers leading to cryptography, gaming and Fintech applications, and high quality random numbers generators (and when you really need them). It also features exact arithmetic / high performance computing and distributed algorithms to compute millions of…

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Added by Vincent Granville on February 29, 2020 at 11:00pm — No Comments

### Advanced Analytic Platforms – Changes in the Leaderboard 2020

Summary: The Gartner Magic Quadrant for Data Science and Machine Learning Platforms is just out the big news is how much more capable all the platforms have become.  Of course there are also some interesting winner and loser stories.

The Gartner Magic Quadrant for Data Science and Machine Learning Platforms is just out for 2020.  The really big news is how many excellent choices are now available.  In a remarkable move, the whole field…

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Added by Vincent Granville on February 21, 2020 at 9:25am — No Comments

### Sentiment Analysis with Naive Bayes and LSTM

In this notebook, we try to predict the positive (label 1) or negative (label 0) sentiment of the sentence. We use the UCI Sentiment Labelled Sentences Data Set.

Sentiment analysis is very useful in many areas. For example, it can be used for internet conversations moderation. Also, it is possible to predict ratings that users can assign to a certain product (food, household appliances, hotels,…

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Added by Vincent Granville on February 19, 2020 at 8:42pm — No Comments

### Common Errors in Machine Learning due to Poor Statistics Knowledge

Probably the worst error is thinking there is a correlation when that correlation is purely artificial. Take a data set with 100,000 variables, say with 10 observations. Compute all the (99,999 * 100,000) / 2 cross-correlations. You are almost guaranteed to find one above 0.999. This is best illustrated in may article How to Lie with P-values (also discussing…

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Added by Vincent Granville on February 7, 2020 at 9:48am — No Comments

### New Perspective on Fermat's Last Theorem

Fermat's last conjecture has puzzled mathematicians for 300 years, and was eventually proved only recently. In this note, I propose a generalization, that could actually lead to a much simpler proof and a more powerful result with broader applications, including to solve numerous similar equations. As usual, my research involves a significant amount of computations and experimental math, as an exploratory step before stating new conjectures, and eventually trying to prove them. The…

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Added by Vincent Granville on January 30, 2020 at 1:09am — No Comments

### Best Languages for Data Science and Statistics in One Picture

Hundreds of programming languages dominate the data science and statistics market: Python, R, SAS and SQL are standouts. If you're looking to branch out and add a new programming language to your skill set, which one should you learn? This one picture breaks down the differences between the four languages.…

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Added by Vincent Granville on January 28, 2020 at 8:41pm — No Comments

### Quick Primer On Graph Data Structure

While many of the programming libraries encapsulate the inner working details of graph and other algorithms, as a data scientist it helps a lot having a reasonably good familiarity of such details.  A solid understanding of the intuition behind such algorithms not only helps in appreciating the logic behind them but also helps in making conscious decisions about their applicability in real life cases.  There are several graph based algorithms and most notable are the shortest path…

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Added by Vincent Granville on January 21, 2020 at 10:12am — No Comments

### TensorFlow 1.x vs 2.x. – summary of changes

In 2019, Google announced TensorFlow 2.0, it is a major leap from the existing TensorFlow 1.0. The key differences are as follows:

Ease of use: Many old libraries (example tf.contrib) were removed, and some consolidated. For example, in TensorFlow1.x the model could be made using Contrib, layers, Keras or estimators, so many options for the same task confused many new users. TensorFlow 2.0 promotes TensorFlow Keras for model experimentation and Estimators…

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Added by Vincent Granville on January 9, 2020 at 9:49am — No Comments

### The Next Big Thing in AI/ML is…

Summary:  AI/ML itself is the next big thing for many fields if you’re on the outside looking in.  But if you’re a data scientist it’s possible to see those advancements that will propel AI/ML to its next phase of utility.

“The Next Big Thing in AI/ML is…” as the lead to an article is probably the most…

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Added by Vincent Granville on January 7, 2020 at 7:41am — No Comments

### How exactly do you determine causation?

Another good article by Ajit Joakar.

Co-relation does not equal causation – is a mantra drilled into a Data Scientist from an early age

That’s fine. But very few talk of the follow-on question ..

How exactly do you determine causation?

This problem is further compounded because most books and examples are based on standard datasets (ex: Boston, Iris etc) . These examples do not discuss…

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Added by Vincent Granville on December 17, 2019 at 2:30pm — No Comments

### Rule of thumb: Which AI / ML algorithms to apply

Written by Ajit Jaokar.

Firstly, there are three broad categories of algorithms:

• Supervised learning: You know how to classify the input data and the type of behavior you want to predict, but you need the algorithm to calculate it for you on new data
• Unsupervised learning: You do not know how to classify the data, and you want the algorithm to find patterns and classify the data for…
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Added by Vincent Granville on December 17, 2019 at 9:00am — No Comments

### Statistics for Data Science in One Picture

There's no doubt about it, probability and statistics is an enormous field, encompassing topics from the familiar (like the average) to the complex (regression analysis, correlation coefficients and hypothesis testing to name but a few). If you want to be a great data scientist, you have to know some basic statistics. The following picture shows which statistics topics you must know if you're going to excel in data science.…

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Added by Vincent Granville on December 12, 2019 at 6:30pm — No Comments

### On Being a 50 Year Old Data Scientist

At the time of writing, I'm a 52 year-old working in the fields of mathematics and data science. In mathematics, that makes me well-seasoned (and probably well-tenured, if I had chosen to continue in academia). In data science, some would consider me a dinosaur. In fact, many older people considering a career in data science might be put off by the thought that data science is tough to break into at a later age. But is that statement true? Should the over 50 crowd put down their textbooks…

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Added by Vincent Granville on December 10, 2019 at 11:51am — No Comments

### How are Deep Neural Networks Adding to Advantage in Climate Change Studies?

Imagine yourself relocating to a more industrial place for living because your beach house was washed away in the tide. In another scenario imagine yourself wearing masks throughout the year. What if I say that, all this that you just imagined could be a reality very soon?

Whether you choose to believe it or not, climate change is happening for real. Even though you might not be able to spot a lot of its impact around you, the world…

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Added by Divyesh Aegis on December 2, 2019 at 11:24pm — No Comments

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