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Hadoop has become the de facto standard in the research and industry uses of small and large-scale MapReduce. Since its inception, an entire ecosystem has been built around it including conferences (Hadoop WorldHadoop Summit), books, training, and commercial distributions (ClouderaHortonworksMapR) with support. Several projects that integrate with Hadoop have been released from the Apache incubator and are designed for certain use cases:

  • Pig, developed at Yahoo, is a high-level scripting language for working with big data andHive is a SQL-like query language for big data in a warehouse configuration.
  • HBase, developed at Facebook, is a column-oriented database often used as a datastore on which MapReduce jobs can be executed.
  • ZooKeeper and Chukwa
  • Mahout is a library for scalable machine learning, part of which can use Hadoop.
  • Cascading (Chris Wensel), Oozie (Yahoo) and Azkaban (LinkedIn) provide MapReduce job workflows and scheduling.

Hadoop is meant to be modeled after Google MapReduce. To store and process huge amounts of data, we typically need several machines in some cluster configuration. A distributed filesystem (HDFS for Hadoop) uses space across a cluster to store data so that it appears to be in a contiguous volume and provides redundancy to prevent data loss. The distributed filesystem also allows data collectors to dump data into HDFS so that it is already prime for use with MapReduce. A Data Scientist or Software Engineer then writes a Hadoop MapReduce job.

As a review, the Hadoop job consists of two main steps, a map step and a reduce step. There may optionally be other steps before the map phase or between the map and reduce phases. The map step reads in a bunch of data, does something to it, and emits a series of key-value pairs. One can think of the map phase as a partitioner. In text mining, the map phase is where most parsing and cleaning is performed. The output of the mappers is sorted and then fed into a series of reducers. The reduce step takes the key value pairs and computes some aggregate (reduced) set of data such as a sum, average, etc. The trivial word count exercise starts with a map phase where text is parsed and a key-value pair is emitted: a word, followed by the number “1″ indicating that the key-value pair represents 1 instance of the word. The user might also emit something to coerce Hadoop into passing data into different reducers. The words and 1s are sorted and passed to the reducers. The reducers take like key-value pairs and compute the number of times the word appears in the original input.

After working extensively with (Vanilla) Hadoop professional for the past 6 months, and at home for research, I have found several nagging issues with Hadoop that have convinced me to look elsewhere for everyday use and certain applications. For these applications, the though of writing a Hadoop job makes me take a deep breath. Before I continue, I will say that I still love Hadoop and the community.

  • Writing Hadoop jobs in Java is very time consuming because everything must be a class, and many times these classes extend several other classes or extend multiple interfaces; the Java API is very bloated. Adding a simple counter to a Hadoop job becomes a chore of its own.
  • Documentation for the bloated Java API is sufficient, but not the most helpful.
  • HDFS is complicated and has plenty of issues of its own. I recently heard a story about data loss in HDFS just because the IP address block used by the cluster changed.
  • Debugging a failure is a nightmare; is it the code itself? Is it a configuration parameter? Is it the cluster or one/several machines on the cluster? Is it the filesystem or disk itself? Who knows?!
  • Logging is verbose to the point that finding errors is like finding a needle in a haystack. That is, if you are even lucky to have an error recorded! I’ve had plenty of instances where jobs fail and there is absolutely nothing in the stdout or stderr logs.
  • Large clusters require a dedicated team to keep it running properly, but that is not surprising.
  • Writing a Hadoop job becomes a software engineering task rather than a data analysis task.

Hadoop will be around for a long time, and for good reason. MapReduce cannot solve every problem (fact), and Hadoop can solve even fewer problems (opinion?). After dealing with some of the innards of Hadoop, I’ve often said to myself “there must be a better way.” For large corporations that routinely crunch large amounts of data using MapReduce, Hadoop is still a great choice. For research, experimentation, and everyday data munging, one of these other frameworks may be better if the advantages of HDFS are not necessarily imperative:


Unlike Hadoop, BashReduce is just a script! BashReduce implements MapReduce for standard Unix commands such as sort, awk, grep, join etc. It supports mapping/partitioning, reducing, and merging. The developers note that BashReduce “sort of” handles task coordination and a distributed file system. In my opinion, these are strengths rather than weaknesses. There is actually no task coordination as a master process simply fires off jobs and data. There is also no distributed file system at all, but BashReduce will distribute files to worker machines. Of course, without a distributed file system there is a lack of fault-tolerance among other things.

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