How do stars get a brightness score?
I've spent many hours looking at the sky over several years with the naked eye - in the mountains, where you can see the Milky Way and shooting stars everyday day the sky is clear - and I have the following questions:
- Some stars appear very early in the night sky. Some other stars appear later, but eventually get brighter than the "early stars". What's the explanation?
- I've been searching intently for dual stars, without finding any. Why would that be? If you produce a chart of the top 5,000 visible stars in the sky and apply a clustering algorithm (or Monte Carlo simulations), you will find that any close proximity between two stars can be explained by probability theory, rather than dual star theory. Of course, with the naked eye, I can only see a very small sample of stars (a few hundreds), in particular, stars that are either close or very bright. But since none of the stars that I've seen have a visible companion star, either the companion star is 10 to 100 times less visible than the main star (like the sun vs. Jupiter), or most of what is going on in the sky is not only invisible, but also very different from what is visible.
- Finally, another question about the speed of light: why is it an absolute constant? If you are on a point A moving away from a point B at the speed of the light, and you see a ray of light moving from B to A (opposite direction, at the speed of the light), of course you will see the ray of light moving faster (by a factor 2) than the supposed maximum speed allowed by Einstein's theory. How do you explain this?